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Friday, September 24, 2010

Artificial Intelligence Questions List.

Define Artificial Intelligence.?

What is the difference between Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence.?

The Birth and Development of Present day AI Research.

Important Events in the History of Artificial Intelligence Research.

What are the characterstics of Intelligence.?

What is AI Technique.?

What are the Knowledge Characterstics.?

What do you know about Production System,.?

Explain the concept of Control Stratagy.?

How can you analyze a Problem.?

Explain the concept of Operators or Production Rules.?

Define the problem as State Space Search Examine in detail.?

Define the problem as Satate Space Problem Sate and Prove Water Jug Proble,.?

Define the concept of Water Jug Problem. find three solutions to Water Jug Problem. Compare if there is a Water scarcity which solution is better and if there is no scarcity of Water which solution is better.?

Define the problem as State Space Problem state and prove Missionaries and Cannibals problem.?

By using State Space Problem write one solution to Tower of Honai Problem,.?

Explain the concept of AI problem characterstics in detail.?

What do you know about Heuristic Search.?

Explain the concept of Heuristic Search Techniques.?

Differentiate Problem Trees from Problem Graphs.?

Explain the concept of Depth First Search in detail.?

Explain the concept of Bredth First Search in detail.?

Explain the concept of Generate and Test Procedure.?

Why Heuristic Search Techniques are called WeekMethods.? Explain the same by using Nearest Neighbour Algorithem of Travelling Sales Man Problem.?

Explain the concept of Best First Search Procedure with an implementation of A* Algorithem.?

What do you know about OR arcs in A* algorithem.? explain in detail.?

Explain the concept of Problem Reduction Method with an implementation of AO* Algorithem.?

Difference between A* Algorithm and AO* Algorthm.?

What do you know about Constraint Satisfaction Procedure.? Explain the same with Constraint inference Rules by using search trees.?

Explain the concept of Means Ends Aanalysis Procedure.?

What do U mean by Knowledge Representation.?

Explain the concept of Symbolic Representaion of Knowledge.?

Knowledge Representation by using Pridicate Logic.

Knowledge Representation by using Proposational Logic.

Explain the Concept of Resolution Procedure.?

Explain the Concept of Resolution Pridicate Logic.?

Explain the Concept of Resolution in Proposational Logic.?

State and Prove Unification Algorithm.?

Explain the concept of Structured Representaion of Kowledge.?

Explain the concept of Semantic Net in detail.?

Explain the concept of Conceptual Dependency Diagrams.?

Write a Short Note on Frame and Script.

What do you know about Non-Monotonic Reasoning.?

Explain the concept of Probabilistic Reasoning.?

Expain the concept of Case Bsed Reasoning.?

What do U Know about Fuzzy Logic.?

Explain the concept of Goal Stack Planning.?

Explain the concept of Blocks world Problem.?

What do you know about Planning System.?

Explain the concept of Natural Language Processing.?

Explain the concept of Syntatic Analysis and Semantic Analysis.?

Expain the concept of CommonSence Aunthologies.?

Explain the concept of Qualitative Physics.?

What do U mean Expert System.? Explain the Architecture of Expert System.?

Explain about Expert System Development Process.?

What are the limitations of Expert System.? Differentiate a CaseBasedExpertSystem from ModelBasedExpertSystem.?

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Dec-2010

Answer all the Questions.
1. a. Define AI.? give the Applications og AI,?
b. Define simple and steapest Hill Climbing.
c. What is heuristic function.?
d. Write the fact form of "Marcus was Tryassosinated by the Ceaser".?
e. What is inheritable Knowledge.?
f. What are the partitioned semantic nets.?
g. Define conditional planning.
h. What is expert system shell.?


Answer all the Questions 8 * 2 = 16 Marks.

1. Syntatic Processing.
2. Discourse.
3. semantic Net
4. Frames.
5. Natural Deduction.
6. Frame Problem
7. Means ends Analysis.
8. AI Technique.

UNIT-I
2. Explain the following Heuristic Search Techniques.
A Hill Climbing
B Best First Search
C Problem Reduction
3. A Explain Production System Characteristics.
B AI Technique with AI Problems.

UNIT II
4. A. Explain about Resolution Procedure in Pridicate Ligic.
B. Discuss the Instance of ISA RelarionShip.
5. A. Explain about Backward Vs Far ward Reasoning.
B. Write the Issues of the Knowledge Representation.

UNIT III
6. A. Explain about Closed World Assumption.
B. Hierarchical Planning.
7. A. Explain about Non Monotonic Reasoning.

UNIT IV
8. Explain SyntacticProcessing
9. Memory Organization and Case Based Reasoning.








UNIT -I

2. Tower of Honai Problem.

OR

3. a. State AO* Algorithem.?
b. Characterstics of Production System.?

UNIT -II

4. Difference between Procedural Knowledge and Declerative Knowledge.

OR

5. Discuss the steps involved in converting a Standard form to Clause form.

UNIT - III

6. Construct a Semantic Network with the suitable examples.?

OR

7. List out the Advantages and Disadvantages that occur in writing the Scripts to represent the Knowledge.?

UNIT - IV

8. What are the characterstics of an Ideal Expert System.?

OR

9. Explain the concept of Natural Language Processing System.?



THE PEDANANDIPADU COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES, PEDANANDIPADU

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER - 2007

Third Semeter

Paper V-ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE



Time:Three Hours Maximum.Marks:80M

Answer Question No.1 compulsorily, (8x2=16)

Answer ONE question from each Unit.(4x16=64)

All questions carry equal marks.

1.a)Distinguish between forward reasoning and backward reasoning?

b)What is AI.

c)What are the issues in knowledge representation.

d)What is meant by unsupervised learning.

e)Explain the term monotonicity.

f)What is state space search?

g)Define Symbolic Reasoning.

h)What is a frame?



UNIT I

2.a)Write Best-first-search algorithm with suitable example.

b)Explain various steps in water jug problem .

Or

c)Discuss and distinguish b/w DFS and BFS .

d)Write Algorithm with suitable example.

UNIT II

3.a)What is a script? Write Restaurant Script in detail.

b)What are semantic nets? Explain with relavent example.

Or

c)Discuss different issues of representing the knowledge.

d)Describe the representation of instance and is a relation.

UNIT III

4.a)Explain the concepts of Symbolic Reasoning and non-monotonic Reasoning.

Or

b)Write short notes on Expert Systems.

UNIT IV

5.a)Write a set of logical predicates that will perform simple automobile diagnostics (ex. If the engine won’t turn over and the lights won’t come on, then the battery is bad) don’t try to be too elaborate, but cover the cases of bad battery out of gas, bad spark plugs and bad starter motor.

Or

b)Discuss the Unification Algorithm with suitable example.

c)What is Syntactic Analysis? Explain with suitable example.
THE PEDANANDIPADU COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES, PEDANANDIPADU


NOVEMBER/DECEMBER - 2006

Third Semeter

Paper V-ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE



Time:Three Hours Maximum.Marks:80M

Answer Question No.1 compulsorily, (8x2=16)

Answer ONE question from each Unit.(4x16=64)

All questions carry equal marks.

1.Write short notes on the following:

a)What do you mean by state space search?

b)Clause form.

c)What are the issues in knowledge presentation?

d)What is hill climbing?

e)Define Backward reasoning.

f)Represent the fact described by the following sentence as a set of wff’s in predicate

logic:

“Marcus tried to assassinate Caesar”.

g)Syntactic analysis.

h) What is the difference between forward and backward reasoning?



UNIT I

2.a)Write AO* algorithm with suitable example.

b)How do we define a problem as a state space search? Explain.

Or

c)What is depth-first search technique? Give the algorithm compare it with breacdth-first technique.

d)What is “means-ends” analysis? Illustrate with an example.

UNIT II

3.a)Explain the issues in knowledge representation.

b)Briefly discuss property inheritance algorithm.

Or

c)Describe about representation of instance and ‘Isa’ relationship.

d)Briefly explain about computable functions and predicates.

UNIT III

4.a)Explain the concept of non-monotonic reasoning.

b)Explain the concept of Dependency-Directed backtracking approach.

Or

c)What are Frames ? Explain with example.

d)Explain the procedure of goal stack planning with suitable example.

UNIT IV

5.a)What is Syntactic Analysis? Explain with suitable example.

b)Describe Unification grammars.

Or

c)Discuss about Case-Based Reasoning.

d) Write short notes on Expert Systems.

(Examination at the end of Second Year of 3 Year Course)
NOVEMBER/DECEMBER - 2006
Paper - V ---ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Time:Three Hours Maximum.Marks:80M
Answer Question.No.1 compulsorily.
Answer ONE question from each Unit.
  1. a) What do you mean by state space search?
b)Clause form.
c)What are the issues in knowledge presentation?
d)What is hill climbing?
e)Define Backward reasoning.
f)Represent the fact described by the following tense as a set of wff”s in
predicate logic:
‘Marcus tried to assassinate Caesar’
g)Syntactic analysis.
h)What is the difference between forward and backward reasoning?

UNIT 1

2.a)Write AO’ algorithm with suitable example.
b)How do we define a problem as a state search? Example.

Or

c)What is depth-first search technique? Give algorithm compare it with breadth-first
technique.
d) What is “means-ends” analysis? Illustrate with an example.

UNIT II

3.a)Explain the issues in knowledge representation.
b)Briefly discuss property inherita algorithm.

Or

c)Describe about representation of instance “Isa” relationship.
d)Briefly explain about computable function and predicates.

UNIT III

4.a)Explain the concept of non-monotonic
b) Explain the concept of Dependency-Directed tracking approach.

Or

c)What are Frames? Explain with example.
d)Explain the procedure of Goal stack planning suitable example.

UNIT IV

5.a)What is Syntactic Analysis? Explain with suitable example.
b) Describe Unification grammars.

Or

c)Discuss about Case- Based Reasoning.
d) Write short notes on Expert Systems.

THE PEDANANDIPADU COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES, PEDANANDIPADU


(Examination at the end of Second Year of 3 Year Course)

MARCH - 2003

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Time:Three Hours Maximum.Marks:100M

PART A – (3X20=60 Marks)

Answer any THREE questions.

1.a) Define Physical Symbol System. State and pr0ve the corresponding hypothesis. (8)

b)With a suitable example explain how state space approach con be used to solve AI

problems (12)

2a)With suitable examples explain about ignorable, recoverable and irrecoverable

classes of problems. (10)

b)Explain the operation of bill climbing procedure and state the problems it has. (10)

3.a)With a suitable example explain how frames can be used to represent knowledge. (10)

b)Explain about property inheritance algorithm and show how it can be used for

default reasoning (10)

4.a)Show by resolution refutation that the following formula is a tautology.

(P ® Q) ® [ (R Ú P) ® (R Ú Q)] (8)

b)Consider the following statements: (12)

i)Whoever can read is literate.

ii)Dolphins are not literate.

iii)Some dolphins are intelligent and using, resolution prove the statement:

“Some who are intelligent can’t read”

5.a)Define Horn clause. Show how a Horn clause can be converted to PROLOG rule. (8)

b)With suitable examples show how ’cut’ and ‘fail’ predicates in PROLOG can be

used to control search. (12)

PART B --- (4X5=20 marks)

Answer any FOUR questions.

6.Explain the difference between forward and backward reasoning.

7.Define monotonic and partially commutative characteristics of a production system.

8.Briefly explain about means-ends analysis approach of solving problems.

9.Explain why scripts are called strong slot and filler structures.

10.Briefly explain about non-monotonic reasoning.

11.Write a PROLOG program to search for an element in a given list.

PART C --- ( 10X2=20marks)

13.Explain the following:

a)TURING TEST.

b)Heuristic function

c)Complimentary.

d)Dynamic programming principle.

e)And-Or graphs.
THE PEDANANDIPADU COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES, PEDANANDIPADU

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER - 2003

Third Semeter

Paper V-ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE



Time:Three Hours Maximum.Marks:80M

Answer Question No.1 compulsorily, (8x2=16)

Answer ONE question from each Unit.(4x16=64)

All questions carry equal marks.

1.Write short notes on the following:

a)Forward reasoning>

b)Turing test.

c)Fuzzy logic

d)Granularity.

e)Heuristic search.

f)Clause form.

g) AND – OR graphs.

h)Backtraching.

UNIT 1

2.a)How do we define a problem as a state space search? Explain.

b)Explain the water jug problem and desctibe the production rules for the water jug

problem.

Or

c)What are the probem characteristics to be analyzed before trying for a solution?

Explain.

d)Analyse the traveling salesmen problem with respect to the characteristics discussed

above.

UNIT II

3.a)What are the approaches to knowledge representation? And what are the issues

involved in it?

b)Describe the method of resolution in predicate logic with an example.

Or

c)Consider the following sentences:

John likes all kinds of food.

Apples are food.

Chicken is food.

Anything anyone eats and isn’t killed by is food.

Bull eats peaqnuts and is still alive.

Sue eats everything Bull eats.

i)Translate these sentences into formulas in predicate logic.

ii)Convert the formulas of part a into clause form.

iii)Prove that John likes peanuts using resolution.

iv)Use resolution to answer the question “What food does Sue eat”?

UNIT III

4a)Explain the concept of nonmonotonic reasoning.

b)What is a semantic net? Explain, with an example, how partitioned semantic nets are

useful.

Or

c)What are frames? Give an example.

d) Explain how slots are used to describe objects and inheritance.

UNIT IV

5.a)Explain the cojncept of syntactic processing.

b) What is semantic analysis ? Explain.

Or

c)What is a rule based expert system? Explain with an example.

d)What are commonsense antologies?


(Examination at the end of Second Year of 3 Year Course)
MARCH - 2000
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Time:Three Hours Maximum.Marks:100M
PART A – (3X20=60 Marks)
Answer any THREE questions.

1.a)Write a PROLOG program for merge sort.
b)Explain the backtraackingusing fail and cut prodicates in PROLOG.

2.a)Distinguish the AI approach to solve a problem from a conventional computational
approach.
b)How to choose a problem solving strategy to solve a given problem? Explain.

3.a)Write A* algorithm and apply it on 8-puzzle problem.

4.Write unification algorithm and trace its operation on the following pairs of literals:
a) f(Marcus), f(Caesar)
b) f(x) and f(g(y))
c) f (Marcus, g(x,y)) and f(x,.g(Caesar, Marcus)).

5. Discuss the representational and reasoning aspects of Frames knowledge representation
scheme.
PART B –( 4X5=20M)
6.Write a PROLOG program for substitute (x,y,L1 L2) where L2 is the result of
substituting Y for, all occurrences of X In L1.

7.What factors determine the choice of direction of search?

8.Explain the principle of resolution with an example.

9.What are the various types production system? Explain.

10.Give good state space representation for missionaries and cannibals problem.

11.Describe the architecture of an Expert system.

PART- C ----(10 X2 = 20 marks)
12.What is an AI technique? Give example.

13.Write a PROLOG program to print a given list in the reverse order.

14.Compare BFS and DFS.

15.What is meant by problem reduction?

16.Explain natural deduction.

17.What is the difference between instances and is a relationships?

18.Write the properties of a good knowledge representation scheme.

19How to perform reasoning on semantic nets?

20.Briefly explain means-ends analysis.

21.What are the characteristics of a good control strategy?

(Examination at the end of Final Year of 3 Year Course)
MARCH - 1999
Paper - V ---ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Tme: 3 Hours Max.Marks:70
Answer Question No.1 and ONE question from each Unit
Answer questions carry equal marks.
1.Explain the following terms in few sentences:
a)Dynamic data bases in prolog.
b)Conflict resolution.
c)Cell notaion for (a(bc D ))
d)Rules in prolog for tab (x) which prints x paces
e)Weak method.
f)Turing Test.
g)Game trees
h)AI Languages.
i)Control strategy
j)Assertion-time inferencing.
k)Default-reasoning.
l)Spatial reaoner.
m)Perception.
n)Skolemization.
UNIT I
2.a)Write a predicdate no-doubles (L1, L2 )which constructs L2 from L1 by removing
all repeated occurrences of any element.
Eg: ? - -no-doubles ([a,b, a,1,a,1,c],L2)
L2 = [a,b,1.c].
b)Give the list of all input output and arithmetic operations provided in PROLOG.
Using them write a program which prints the multiplication table for a given
Number.
Or
c) Write a prolog program to implement breadth first search.
d) Explain ‘CUT’ and ‘RETRACT’ predicates of PROLOG with examples.
e)Write a prolog program to reverse a given list.
UNIT II
3.a)Using constraint satisfaction, solve the following cryptarithmetic problem:
SEND
MORE
----------
MONEY
-----------
b)Derive the production rules for the water jug problem.
Or
c)Discuss about alpha-beta procedure.
d)Explain the characteristics of production systems.
UNIT III
4.a)Represent the following facts in predicate logic:
i)John only sees good movies
ii)People enjoy creativity.
iii)Some people make fun of everybody.
iv)An object which is heavy can n’t be moved , by a weak person.
v)Every student will be happy when examinations are just over.
b)Explain unification and resolution methods with examples.
Or
c)Explain connectionist AI and Symbolic AI.
d)Discuss learning in Neural Networks.
UNIT IV
5.a)Distinguish between forward and backward chaining.
b)Discuss the life-cycle of expert systems development.
Or
c)Build up the conceptual dependency structures for the following sentences:
i)Rama killed Ravana.
ii)While crossing sea, Hanuman saw a Cannnibal.
iii)American bombed Hiroshima.
d)Represent the following sentences using Semantic nets:
i)All students answered all questions in all possible ways.
ii)The score of Newzealand in todays Cricket match is 250 all out.


(Examination at the end of Final Year of 4 Year Course)
MARCH - 1998
Paper - V ---ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Tme: 3 Hours Max.Marks:70
Answer Question No.1 and ONE question from each Unit
Answer questions carry equal marks.
1.a)Define heuristic.
b)problem space.
c)State space.
d) Perceptron.
e)neuron.
f)Boltzmann machine.
g)Hill climbing.
h)Problem reduction.
i)Means-Ends Analysis.
j)Isa relationship.
k)Inheritance.
l)Computable function.
m)Best-first search.
n)Connectionist AI.
UNIT I
2.a)Explain the use of out with an example in prolog.
b)Write a prolog program to find the minimum of a list of integers.

Or

c)Write a prolog program to implement depth-first search
d) Write a prolog program illustrating recursion.
UNIT II
3.a)Describe problem characteristics.
b)Explain what is a production system.

Or

c)Explain Hill climbing with an example.
d)Describe in detail Means-ends analysis.
UNIT II
4.a)Define Resolution.
b)Assume the following facts:
Steve only likes easy courses.
Science courses are hard.
All the courses in the basket weaving department are easy.
Bk 301 is a basket weaving course.
Use resolution to answer the question “What course would steve like”?

Or

c)Explain learning in neural networks with perceptrons.
d)Describe few applications of neural networks.
UNIT IV
5.a)Explain forward and backward reasoning with example.
b)Explain the architecture of an expert system
Or
c)Describe any two techniques fore matching.
d)Describe Semantic Nots with examples.


(Examination at the end of Final Year of 4 Year Course)
SEPTEMBER - 1998
Paper - V ---ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Tme: 3 Hours Max.Marks:70
Answer Question No.1 and ONE question from each Unit
Answer questions carry equal marks.
1.Briefly explain the following:
a)Generate-and-test.
b)Inheritance
c)Constraint satisfaction.
d)Unification.
e)Instance relationship.
f)Back propagation network.
g)Chronological back tracking
h)Recursion.
i)Natural deduction.
j)Production rules.
k)Procedural knowledge
l)Declarative knowledge.
m)Give definition of script.
n)Semantic Net.
UNIT I
2.a)Write constraint satisfaction procedure.
b) Solve the crypt arithmetic problem.
CROSS
+ ROADS
-------------
DANGER
--------------
Or
c)Write the algorithm for problem reduction.
d)How problem reduction is different from Best-first search?
UNIT II
3.a)Write the algorithm for unification.
b)Consider the following sentences:
John likes all kinds of food.
Apples are food.
Chicken is food.
Anything anyone eats and isnot killed by is food.
Bill eats peanuts and is still alive.
Sue eats everything Bills eats.
Translate these sentences into formulas in predicate logic.
Or
c)Explain the working of Hop field Networks.
d) Describe what are recurrent networks.
UNIT III
4.a)Write a prolog program to implement power (X,N,V) where V equals Xn
b)Illustrate recursion with an example program to obtain factorial of given number.
Or
c)Write a prolog program to implement Best-first search.
UNIT IV
5.a)Describe the architecture of Expert system.
b)Explain conflict resolution.
Or
c)Explain conceptual dependency in detail with examples.