What is the difference between Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence.?
The Birth and Development of Present day AI Research.
Important Events in the History of Artificial Intelligence Research.
What are the characterstics of Intelligence.?
What is AI Technique.?
What are the Knowledge Characterstics.?
What do you know about Production System,.?
Explain the concept of Control Stratagy.?
How can you analyze a Problem.?
Explain the concept of Operators or Production Rules.?
Define the problem as State Space Search Examine in detail.?
Define the problem as Satate Space Problem Sate and Prove Water Jug Proble,.?
Define the concept of Water Jug Problem. find three solutions to Water Jug Problem. Compare if there is a Water scarcity which solution is better and if there is no scarcity of Water which solution is better.?
Define the problem as State Space Problem state and prove Missionaries and Cannibals problem.?
By using State Space Problem write one solution to Tower of Honai Problem,.?
Explain the concept of AI problem characterstics in detail.?
What do you know about Heuristic Search.?
Explain the concept of Heuristic Search Techniques.?
Differentiate Problem Trees from Problem Graphs.?
Explain the concept of Depth First Search in detail.?
Explain the concept of Bredth First Search in detail.?
Explain the concept of Generate and Test Procedure.?
Why Heuristic Search Techniques are called WeekMethods.? Explain the same by using Nearest Neighbour Algorithem of Travelling Sales Man Problem.?
Explain the concept of Best First Search Procedure with an implementation of A* Algorithem.?
What do you know about OR arcs in A* algorithem.? explain in detail.?
Explain the concept of Problem Reduction Method with an implementation of AO* Algorithem.?
Difference between A* Algorithm and AO* Algorthm.?
What do you know about Constraint Satisfaction Procedure.? Explain the same with Constraint inference Rules by using search trees.?
Explain the concept of Means Ends Aanalysis Procedure.?
What do U mean by Knowledge Representation.?
Explain the concept of Symbolic Representaion of Knowledge.?
Knowledge Representation by using Pridicate Logic.
Knowledge Representation by using Proposational Logic.
Explain the Concept of Resolution Procedure.?
Explain the Concept of Resolution Pridicate Logic.?
Explain the Concept of Resolution in Proposational Logic.?
State and Prove Unification Algorithm.?
Explain the concept of Structured Representaion of Kowledge.?
Explain the concept of Semantic Net in detail.?
Explain the concept of Conceptual Dependency Diagrams.?
Write a Short Note on Frame and Script.
What do you know about Non-Monotonic Reasoning.?
Explain the concept of Probabilistic Reasoning.?
Expain the concept of Case Bsed Reasoning.?
What do U Know about Fuzzy Logic.?
Explain the concept of Goal Stack Planning.?
Explain the concept of Blocks world Problem.?
What do you know about Planning System.?
Explain the concept of Natural Language Processing.?
Explain the concept of Syntatic Analysis and Semantic Analysis.?
Expain the concept of CommonSence Aunthologies.?
Explain the concept of Qualitative Physics.?
What do U mean Expert System.? Explain the Architecture of Expert System.?
Explain about Expert System Development Process.?
What are the limitations of Expert System.? Differentiate a CaseBasedExpertSystem from ModelBasedExpertSystem.?
b. Define simple and steapest Hill Climbing.
c. What is heuristic function.?
d. Write the fact form of "Marcus was Tryassosinated by the Ceaser".?
e. What is inheritable Knowledge.?
f. What are the partitioned semantic nets.?
g. Define conditional planning.
h. What is expert system shell.?
Answer all the Questions 8 * 2 = 16 Marks.
1. Syntatic Processing.
3. semantic Net
5. Natural Deduction.
6. Frame Problem
7. Means ends Analysis.
8. AI Technique.
9. Memory Organization and Case Based Reasoning.
2. Tower of Honai Problem.
3. a. State AO* Algorithem.?
b. Characterstics of Production System.?
4. Difference between Procedural Knowledge and Declerative Knowledge.
5. Discuss the steps involved in converting a Standard form to Clause form.
6. Construct a Semantic Network with the suitable examples.?
7. List out the Advantages and Disadvantages that occur in writing the Scripts to represent the Knowledge.?
8. What are the characterstics of an Ideal Expert System.?
1.a)Distinguish between forward reasoning and backward reasoning?
b)What is AI.
c)What are the issues in knowledge representation.
d)What is meant by unsupervised learning.
e)Explain the term monotonicity.
f)What is state space search?
g)Define Symbolic Reasoning.
h)What is a frame?
2.a)Write Best-first-search algorithm with suitable example.
b)Explain various steps in water jug problem .
c)Discuss and distinguish b/w DFS and BFS .
d)Write Algorithm with suitable example.
3.a)What is a script? Write Restaurant Script in detail.
b)What are semantic nets? Explain with relavent example.
c)Discuss different issues of representing the knowledge.
d)Describe the representation of instance and is a relation.
4.a)Explain the concepts of Symbolic Reasoning and non-monotonic Reasoning.
b)Write short notes on Expert Systems.
5.a)Write a set of logical predicates that will perform simple automobile diagnostics (ex. If the engine won’t turn over and the lights won’t come on, then the battery is bad) don’t try to be too elaborate, but cover the cases of bad battery out of gas, bad spark plugs and bad starter motor.
b)Discuss the Unification Algorithm with suitable example.
c)What is Syntactic Analysis? Explain with suitable example.
THE PEDANANDIPADU COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES, PEDANANDIPADU
NOVEMBER/DECEMBER - 2006
Paper V-ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Time:Three Hours Maximum.Marks:80M
Answer Question No.1 compulsorily, (8x2=16)
Answer ONE question from each Unit.(4x16=64)
All questions carry equal marks.
1.Write short notes on the following:
a)What do you mean by state space search?
c)What are the issues in knowledge presentation?
d)What is hill climbing?
e)Define Backward reasoning.
f)Represent the fact described by the following sentence as a set of wff’s in predicate
“Marcus tried to assassinate Caesar”.
h) What is the difference between forward and backward reasoning?
2.a)Write AO* algorithm with suitable example.
b)How do we define a problem as a state space search? Explain.
c)What is depth-first search technique? Give the algorithm compare it with breacdth-first technique.
d)What is “means-ends” analysis? Illustrate with an example.
3.a)Explain the issues in knowledge representation.
b)Briefly discuss property inheritance algorithm.
c)Describe about representation of instance and ‘Isa’ relationship.
d)Briefly explain about computable functions and predicates.
4.a)Explain the concept of non-monotonic reasoning.
b)Explain the concept of Dependency-Directed backtracking approach.
c)What are Frames ? Explain with example.
d)Explain the procedure of goal stack planning with suitable example.
5.a)What is Syntactic Analysis? Explain with suitable example.
b)Describe Unification grammars.
c)Discuss about Case-Based Reasoning.
d) Write short notes on Expert Systems.
- a) What do you mean by state space search?
b)With a suitable example explain how state space approach con be used to solve AI
2a)With suitable examples explain about ignorable, recoverable and irrecoverable
classes of problems. (10)
b)Explain the operation of bill climbing procedure and state the problems it has. (10)
3.a)With a suitable example explain how frames can be used to represent knowledge. (10)
b)Explain about property inheritance algorithm and show how it can be used for
default reasoning (10)
4.a)Show by resolution refutation that the following formula is a tautology.
(P ® Q) ® [ (R Ú P) ® (R Ú Q)] (8)
b)Consider the following statements: (12)
i)Whoever can read is literate.
ii)Dolphins are not literate.
iii)Some dolphins are intelligent and using, resolution prove the statement:
“Some who are intelligent can’t read”
5.a)Define Horn clause. Show how a Horn clause can be converted to PROLOG rule. (8)
b)With suitable examples show how ’cut’ and ‘fail’ predicates in PROLOG can be
used to control search. (12)
6.Explain the difference between forward and backward reasoning.
7.Define monotonic and partially commutative characteristics of a production system.
8.Briefly explain about means-ends analysis approach of solving problems.
9.Explain why scripts are called strong slot and filler structures.
10.Briefly explain about non-monotonic reasoning.
11.Write a PROLOG program to search for an element in a given list.
13.Explain the following:
d)Dynamic programming principle.
1.Write short notes on the following:
g) AND – OR graphs.
2.a)How do we define a problem as a state space search? Explain.
b)Explain the water jug problem and desctibe the production rules for the water jug
c)What are the probem characteristics to be analyzed before trying for a solution?
d)Analyse the traveling salesmen problem with respect to the characteristics discussed
3.a)What are the approaches to knowledge representation? And what are the issues
involved in it?
b)Describe the method of resolution in predicate logic with an example.
c)Consider the following sentences:
John likes all kinds of food.
Apples are food.
Chicken is food.
Anything anyone eats and isn’t killed by is food.
Bull eats peaqnuts and is still alive.
Sue eats everything Bull eats.
i)Translate these sentences into formulas in predicate logic.
ii)Convert the formulas of part a into clause form.
iii)Prove that John likes peanuts using resolution.
iv)Use resolution to answer the question “What food does Sue eat”?
4a)Explain the concept of nonmonotonic reasoning.
b)What is a semantic net? Explain, with an example, how partitioned semantic nets are
c)What are frames? Give an example.
d) Explain how slots are used to describe objects and inheritance.
5.a)Explain the cojncept of syntactic processing.
b) What is semantic analysis ? Explain.
c)What is a rule based expert system? Explain with an example.
d)What are commonsense antologies?