Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Conceptual Dependency (CD).

Conceptual Dependency (CD)

This representation is used in natural language processing in order to represent them earning of the sentences in such a way that inference we can be made from the sentences. It is independent of the language in which the sentences were originally stated. CD representations of a sentence is built out of primitives , which are not words belonging to the language but are conceptual , these primitives are combined to form the meaning s of the words. As an example consider the event represented by the sentence.

 In the above representation the symbols have the following meaning:

Arrows indicate direction of dependency

Double arrow indicates two may link between actor and the action

P indicates past tense

ATRANS is one of the primitive acts used by the theory . it indicates transfer of possession

0 indicates the object case relation

R indicates the recipient case relation

Conceptual dependency provides a str5ucture in which knowledge can be represented and also a set of building blocks from which representations can be built. A typical set of primitive actions are

ATRANS - Transfer of an abstract relationship(Eg: give)

PTRANS - Transfer of the physical location of an object(Eg: go)

PROPEL - Application of physical force to an object (Eg: push)

MOVE - Movement of a body part by its owner (eg : kick)

GRASP - Grasping of an object by an actor(Eg: throw)

INGEST - Ingesting of an object by an animal (Eg: eat)

EXPEL - Expulsion of something from the body of an animal (cry)

MTRANS - Transfer of mental information(Eg: tell)

MBUILD - Building new information out of old(Eg: decide)

SPEAK - Production of sounds(Eg: say)

ATTEND - Focusing of sense organ toward a stimulus (Eg: listen)

A second set of building block is the set of allowable dependencies among the conceptualization describe in a sentence.


  1. great work . everything is explained in a simple manner . very helpful material.

  2. sir plz describe this in a simple language

    1. In structured representation of knowledge CD representation is used to place the real world events or situations information on AI systems i.e to act as Intelligent Computer System., for that we using CD primitives to represent the events information on systems knowledge-base. It is one of the procedure to place events information on AI system and applying appropriate Procedural Mechanism on structured Representation of Knowledge., i.e we can exploit the represented structures by using procedural mechanisms either in LISP or PROLOG Language.

  3. Good explanation with example sir