Friday, July 2, 2010

Artificial Intelligence-The Ruler of Future IT.

Objective:- The IT industry in India has been growing at above 25% annually for several years now. Information Technology has emerged as a dominant sector of the Indian Economy. The current education offers a variety of both graduate & Post-Graduate courses with all Combinations of words Computer, Information and Software with Science, Engineering and Applications. Software Industry in India had recognized growth in the last decade and is hoped to play a much bigger role in near future for growing Indian economy. Information ethics has grown over the years as a discipline in library and information science.

AI is the talk of IT industry today. ie How to develop an Intelligent Computer System.

The Birth and Development of present day AI research:-
Definition :-
Artificial Intelligence is a name given to the scientific research, this research will begin from past 40 years onwards, its origin is JAPAN.
AI is the study of how to make Computers do things at which at the movement people are better.
Its main aim is depend upon the situation how the Computer take the decisions automatically like human brain.
AI is the part of the Computer Science Concerned with designing, intelligent computer systems, that is systems that exhibits the characteristics we associate with intelligence in Human Behavior. Once again this definition will raise the following question. “Intelligent Behavior “, in view of the difficulty in defining the Intelligence, Let us try to characteristics that is a list of number of characteristics by which we can identify the Human Intelligence .
1. To respond situations very flexibility.
2. To make sense of out of ambiguity to the Contradictory messages.
3. To recognize the relative importance of different elements of a situation.
4. To find similarities between situations despite the differences which my
separate them.
5. To draw distinction between situations despite similarities which may link
them. AI is the branch of computer science dealing with symbolic non
algorithmic methods of a problem solving.
But AI researchers shown people are more Intelligent than Computers, AI tries to improve the performance of computers in activities that people do better, then the goal of AI is to make computers more Intelligent. AI researches have show that “ Intelligence requires knowledge”, and knowledge itself posses some less desirable activities of Real Life Situations.
It voluminous
It is hard characterize accurately
It is constantly changing
It differs from data
It is organized data

AI is the branch of computer science that deals with ways of representing knowledge by using symbols rather than numbers and with rules of thumb, or heuristic methods for processing.

AI works with pattern matching methods which attempts to describe objects, events and processes in terms of their qualitative features and logical and computational relationships.
While reading the above definitions one must be remember keeping in mind that the AI is fast new developing science.
Thus it is having both Scientific and Engineering goals.
AI is the part of the Computer Science concerned with designing, intelligent computer systems, that is systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in Human Behavior. Once again this definition will raise the following question. “Intelligent Behavior “, in view of the difficulty in defining the Intelligence, Let us try to characterize that is a list of number of characteristics by which we can identify the Human Intelligence. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand Human Intelligence.
The term AI is referred to known as Intelligent Behavior in Artifacts. Artifacts are Man-Made Machines. Thus AI is related with Psychology, Cognition, and Behavioral Science. Thus we have to consider the following Characteristics that are passed by an AI System 1. Perception 2. Reasoning
3. Learning 4. Communicating 5. Acting in Complex Environments.
These are the challenges now facing researchers in AI.

For developing the AI application the researchers use the two languages.
1. LISP – List Processing
2. PROLOG – PROgramming in LOGic.

LISP is used mainly in America for developing the AI application. PROLOG is used in Japan and the other Europe countries for develop the AI applications. Where as in image processing researchers use the natural computer languages FORTRAN & C.
In export systems the researchers use the “OOPS-5”.
To identify the importance of “Artificial Intelligence” JAPAN start the FIFTH GENERATION PROJECT 14 years back. JAPAN government gave the permission to make the special computers for AI applications.
INDIA also started FIFTH GENERATIN PROJECT 8 years back, for this INDIAN GOVERNMENT gave the permission to the IIT , ISI( Calcutta) ., IISI (Bangalore)., till no there is no response.
Before studying an AI problem and trying to solve it, the following have to be considered:
- Assumption to be used in solving the problem
- Techniques to be used in solving the problem
- The level of detail at with we are trying to model human intelligence
- How to know when we have succeeded in building an intelligent program.
Will Artificial Intelligence Applications Rules Future Information
AI Applications are the talk of IT industry today. Pattern Recognition and Image Processing, Expert systems(Knowledge based Computer Systems) are the major concern of AI research.
The computers of today are knowledge Information processing systems. Expert systems in turn, embody modules of organized knowledge about specific areas of Human Expertise. They also support sophisticated problem- solving and inference functions, providing users with a source of intelligent advice on some specialized topic. Expert systems also provide human oriented I/O in the form of natural Languages, speech, and picture images. For example an Expert System for Medical Diagnosis could operate in the way analogous to the way a Physician, a surgeon, and a patient interact and use their knowledge to make a diagnosis.
Symbol manipulation: In Expert systems(Knowledge based Computer Systems), ”Knowledge” is often represented in terms of IF… THEN rules of the form:
IF Codition.1 and
Condition.2 and
Condition n
THEN implication (with significance)
If all conditions are true, then the implication is true, with an associated logical significance factor. While a set of rules is searched, an overall significance factor is manipulated, and when this significance becomes unacceptably low the search is abounded and a view set of rules is searched.
This structure of expert systems is most closely matched by the structure of logical programming (its computational model). In a logic programming language such as LISP & PROLOG. Prolog statements are relations of a restricted form called ”Clauses”’ and the execution of such program is a suitably controlled logic deduction from the Clauses forming the program. A Clause is a Well formed Formula consisting of Conjunction and Disjunction of Literals. The following logic program for family three Conditions of four Clauses.

Father (Bill, John)
Father (John, Tom)
Grandfather (X,Z) :- father (X,Y) ,mother (Y,Z).
Grandfather (X,Z) :- father (X,Y) ,father (Y,Z).
The first two clauses define that Bill is the father of John, second two clauses use the variables X, Y and Z to represent (express) the rule that if X is the grandfather of Z, if X is the father of Y and Y is either the mother or father of Z . Such a program can be asked a range of questions- from “ is John, the father of Tom?” [Father (John, Tom)?] To “ Is there any A who is the grandfather of C?”[Grandfather (A, C)?] .
The possible operation of computer based on logic is illustrated in the following using the family tree program. Execution of , for example “Grandfather (Bill,R)?”Will match each “Grandfather ( ) “ Clause.
Grandfather ( X=Bill, Z=R ) :- father (Bill,Y),mother (Y,R).
Grandfather ( X=Bill, Z=R ) :- father (Bill,Y),father (Y,R).
Both clauses will attempt in parallel to satisfy their Goals, such a concept is called OR – Parallelism. The first clause will fail being unable to satisfy its goal, search will continues to the second clause i.e., called OR – Parallelism.
The first clause will fail being unable to satisfy the “Mother( )” goal form the program. The second goal has “Father( )” , “Mother( )” , which is attempt to solve in parallel, such a concept is called AND parallelism. The later concept involves Pattern Matching methods and substitution to satisfy both the individual goals.
Grandfather (X=Bill, Z=R) : - father (Bill,Y), father (Y,R).
:-father(Bill,Y=John), father (Y=Bill,R=John).
And the Overall Consistency
:-father(Bill,Y=John),father (Y=John,R=Tom).
Computers Organization supporting Expert Systems is a highly micro programmed(Control Flow Based). PROLOG machines analogous to current Lisp machines although we can expect a number of such designs in the near feature. PROLOG machines are not TRUE Logic Machines. Just as LISP Machines are not considered reduction machines liked by a Common logic Machine language and architecture.
Future Potential:- Further Developments in Future in the area of AI Research will be in hopeful manner.
Fifth Generation Project:-
Form the basis of what is called Intelligent Consumer Electronics. Further developments of this type of computer is motivated by the fact that these electronics will be the major money earning industry.
If AI Applications from Fifth Generation Project are successfully implemented the above said Logic programs through Perceptual activities i.e. a day will come very soon to act the Computer as Human Brain, ie., what we call Intelligent Computer.

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