Saturday, September 15, 2012

Describe procedural Vs declarative knowledge?

Declarative knowledge is defined as the factual information stored in memory and known to be static in nature. Other names, e.g. descriptive knowledge, propositional knowledge, etc. are also given. It is the part of knowledge which describes how things are. Things/events/processes, their attributes, and the relations between these things/events/processes and their attributes define the domain of declarative knowledge.
Procedural knowledge is the knowledge of how to perform, or how to operate. Names such as know-how are also given. It is said that one becomes more skilled in problem solving when he relies more on procedural knowledge than declarative knowledge.
Procedural knowledge
Declarative knowledge

·   high efficiency

·   low modifiability

·   low cognitive adequacy (better for knowledge engineers)

·        higher level of abstraction

·        suitable for indipendent facts

·        good modifiability

·        good readablity

·        good cognitive matching (better for domain experts and end-users)

  • low computational efficiency


  1. Procedural Knowledge i.e means to incorporate on AI systems through procedures like LISP and PROLOG languages. Declarative Knowledge means to incorporate on AI systems through Declarative mechanisms like Semantic Nets., CD Diagrams., Frames and Scripts.

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