**UNIFICATION ALGORITHM**

**In propsoitional logic it is easy to determine that two literals can not both be true at the same time. Simply look for L and ~L . In predicate logic, this matching process is more complicated, since bindings of variables must be considered.**

**For example man (john) and man(john) is a contradiction while man (john) and man(Himalayas) is not. Thus in order to determine contradictions we need a matching procedure that compares two literals and discovers whether there exist a set of substitutions that makes them identical . There is a recursive procedure that does this matching . It is called Unification algorithm.**

**In Unification algorithm each literal is represented as a list, where first element is the name of a predicate and the remaining elements are arguments. The argument may be a single element (atom) or may be another list. For example we can have literals as**

**( tryassassinate Marcus Caesar)**

**( tryassassinate Marcus (ruler of Rome))**

**To unify two literals , first check if their first elements re same. If so proceed. Otherwise they can not be unified. For example the literals**

**( try assassinate Marcus Caesar)**

**( hate Marcus Caesar)**

**Can not be Unfied. The unification algorithm recursively matches pairs of elements, one pair at a time. The matching rules are :**

**i) Different constants , functions or predicates can not match, whereas identical ones can.**

**ii) A variable can match another variable , any constant or a function or predicate expression, subject to the condition that the function or [predicate expression must not contain any instance of the variable being matched (otherwise it will lead to infinite recursion).**

**iii) The substitution must be consistent. Substituting y for x now and then z for x later is inconsistent. (a substitution y for x written as y/x)**

**The Unification algorithm is listed below as a procedure UNIFY (L1, L2). It returns a list representing the composition of the substitutions that were performed during the match. An empty list NIL indicates that a match was found without any substitutions. If the list contains a single value F, it indicates that the unification procedure failed.**

**UNIFY (L1, L2)**

**1. if L1 or L2 is an atom part of same thing do**

**(a) if L1 or L2 are identical then return NIL**

**(b) else if L1 is a variable then do**

**(i) if L1 occurs in L2 then return F else return (L2/L1)**

**© else if L2 is a variable then do**

**(i) if L2 occurs in L1 then return F else return (L1/L2)**

**else return F.**

**2. If length (L!) is not equal to length (L2) then return F.**

**3. Set SUBST to NIL**

**( at the end of this procedure , SUBST will contain all the substitutions used to unify L1 and L2).**

**4. For I = 1 to number of elements in L1 do**

**i) call UNIFY with the i th element of L1 and I’th element of L2, putting the result in S**

**ii) if S = F then return F**

**iii) if S is not equal to NIL then do**

**(A) apply S to the remainder of both L1 and L2**

**(B) SUBST := APPEND (S, SUBST) return SUBST.**

Sir what is the remainder of l1 and l2

ReplyDelete

DeleteResolvant of both of the Literals L1 and L2

what us S and SUBST?

ReplyDeleteTwo Sets

DeleteWonderful explanation, this really helped.

ReplyDeleteI like your post very much. It is very much useful for my research. I hope you to share more info about this. Keep posting

ReplyDeleteartificial intelligence online course